Cycle's Approach Background:
In Cycle 1, all patterns determined from the assessment are presented consecutively. This cycle contains between three and six different patterns of phonemes. Target one pattern intensively for a fixed time then move onto the second pattern (even if the child has not mastered the initial pattern or error sound), then moving on to the third pattern and so on until all initial primary patterns of error have been worked on, marking the completion of one cycle.
Cycle Example (30 minute sessions 2x a week)
Final Consonant Deletion: CVC Final Nasals: Final M (Session 1 & 2), Final N (Session 3 & 4). CVC Final Voiceless Stops: Final P (Session 5 & 6), Final T (Session 7 & 8).
Fronting: Final K (Session 9 & 10), Initial K (Session 11 & 12), Initial G (Session 13 & 14)
S blends: SP Initial cluster (Session 15 & 16), SM cluster (Session 17 & 18).
Goal of the Cycles Approach:
Ideal Candidates for Cycles:
The order of phonological patterns within cycles is based on developmental and clinical phonology research findings and on each individual's phonological abilities. Remember, we are not targeting individual phonemes, but rather entire sound patterns.
The clinician should select the client’s most stimulable sounds or patterns, so that the child can experience immediate success. Stimulate any non-stimulable sounds for a few minutes during sessions until they become stimulable (& always facilitate liquids if they are not stimulable).
The targeted patterns within the cycle are used to stimulate emergence of a specific sound or pattern in spontaneous language, not mastery of it. Target only those that are consistent deviations and errors that occur at least 40% of the time.
Primary First Cycle Targets:
Advanced Target Patterns:
3 & 4 year olds (Rhyming and Alliteration, Segmentation, Blending and Manipulation of words and syllables as well as phoneme and grapheme awareness)
5 & 6 year olds (Onset/Rime and Blending, Segmentation, Blending and Manipulation of phonemes as well as grapheme and phoneme correspondence).
Important Components of Cycles:
Focused Auditory Input:
Rudolph, J.M. and Wendt, O. (2014). The efficacy of the cycles approach: A multiple baseline design. Journal of Communication Disorders, 47, 1-16.
Evaluating and Enhancing Children's Phonological Skills; A Systematic Approach by Barbara Williams Hodson, PhD, CCC-SLP CEU
Bauman-Wängler, Jacqueline A. Articulatory and Phonological Impairments: A Clinical Focus. Boston: Pearson, 2012. Print.
Williams, A L, Sharynne McLeod, and Rebecca J. McCauley. Interventions for Speech Sound Disorders in Children. Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes Pub, 2010. Print.